Concussions have become a growing topic of concern in the world of sports, medicine, and everyday life. These traumatic brain injuries (TBI) can occur in various situations, from a hard hit on the football field to a fall at home. Understanding the science behind concussions is essential to recognise the symptoms, seek appropriate medical help, and take preventive measures. In this article, we will explore the neurological impact of concussions, their symptoms, and the recovery process. By the end, you will have a better understanding of the importance of concussion awareness and education.

What is a Concussion? Defining Traumatic Brain Injuries

A concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that occurs when the brain experiences a sudden jolt or impact. This can be caused by a direct blow to the head, neck, or upper body, or an indirect force that causes the head to shake rapidly. The force of the impact can cause the brain to move within the skull, resulting in temporary or permanent damage to brain cells and structures.

Traumatic brain injuries can be classified into three categories: mild, moderate, and severe. Concussions are typically considered mild TBIs, although their severity can vary depending on the force of the impact and the individual’s vulnerability. It’s important to note that even a mild concussion can have lasting effects on a person’s cognitive, emotional, and physical well-being.

The Science of Head Injuries: Understanding the Neurological Impact

When a concussion occurs, the force of the impact can cause the brain to move within the skull, leading to a variety of neurological changes. These changes can include the stretching and tearing of nerve fibers, disruptions in the balance of chemicals and ions within brain cells, and the activation of the brain’s natural response to injury.

The stretching and tearing of nerve fibers can lead to a temporary disruption in the normal communication between brain cells. This can result in a variety of cognitive, emotional, and physical symptoms, such as confusion, memory problems, and difficulty concentrating. Additionally, the disruption of chemical and ion balances can cause a temporary decrease in energy production within the brain, which may contribute to the feelings of fatigue and drowsiness that are commonly experienced following a concussion.

The brain’s natural response to injury, known as neuroinflammation, is initiated in an attempt to repair and protect damaged brain tissue. While this response is essential for recovery, it can also contribute to the development of symptoms and prolong the healing process if not properly managed.

Symptoms of a Concussion: How to Know if You Have a Concussion

Recognising the signs and symptoms of a concussion is crucial for timely diagnosis and treatment. Common symptoms include:

  1. Headache
  2. Dizziness
  3. Nausea or vomiting
  4. Confusion or disorientation
  5. Memory problems, especially difficulty remembering the events surrounding the injury
  6. Difficulty concentrating or processing information
  7. Fatigue or drowsiness
  8. Sensitivity to light and noise
  9. Balance problems
  10. Changes in mood, such as irritability, sadness, or anxiety

It’s important to note that not everyone will experience all of these symptoms, and the severity and duration of symptoms can vary widely between individuals.

Delayed Concussion Symptoms: What to Watch Out for

Some concussion symptoms may not appear immediately after the injury and can develop hours or even days later. Delayed symptoms can include:

  1. Persistent headaches that worsen over time
  2. Memory and concentration problems
  3. Sleep disturbances, such as insomnia or excessive sleeping
  4. Changes in personality or behaviour
  5. Increased sensitivity to light and noise
  6. Persistent dizziness or balance issues
  7. Depression or anxiety

If you or someone you know experiences any of these delayed symptoms following a head injury, it’s crucial to seek medical attention as soon as possible.

The Timeline of Concussion Symptoms: When Do They Start and How Long Do They Last?

The onset of concussion symptoms can vary depending on the severity of the injury and the individual’s vulnerability. Some people may experience symptoms immediately after the impact, while others may not notice any signs until hours or even days later.

In most cases, concussion symptoms resolve within a few days to a few weeks. However, some individuals may continue to experience symptoms for months or even years after the injury. This is known as post-concussion syndrome (PCS) and is more common among individuals who have had multiple concussions or have a history of migraines or other neurological conditions.

Recovery Process: How Long Does It Take to Recover from a Concussion?

The recovery process from a concussion can vary greatly between individuals and depends on factors such as the severity of the injury, the individual’s age and health, and the presence of any co-existing conditions or complications. In general, most people recover from a concussion within a few weeks, with the majority of symptoms resolving within the first 7-10 days.

During the recovery process, it’s essential to follow a healthcare professional’s guidance and avoid activities that could potentially cause another concussion or worsen symptoms. This may include taking a break from sports, avoiding physically demanding activities, and limiting exposure to screen time and bright lights.

Gradually returning to normal activities should be done under the supervision of a healthcare professional such as a Clinical Psychologist and a Sports Medicine Physician and should be based on an individual’s symptoms and progress.

Signs of a Concussion: Recognising the Warning Signs and When to Seek Medical Help

If you suspect that you or someone you know may have sustained a concussion, it’s crucial to seek medical help as soon as possible. Early diagnosis and treatment can help to minimise the risk of complications and promote a faster recovery. Warning signs that indicate a need for immediate medical attention include:

  1. Loss of consciousness or unresponsiveness after the injury
  2. Seizures or convulsions
  3. Persistent or worsening headache
  4. Repeated vomiting or nausea
  5. Slurred speech or difficulty speaking
  6. Weakness or numbness in the limbs
  7. Inability to recognise people or places
  8. Increasing confusion, agitation, or restlessness

Prevention and Safety Measures: Reducing the Risk of Concussions

While it may not be possible to prevent all concussions, there are steps that can be taken to reduce the risk of these injuries:

  1. Wear appropriate protective gear during sports and recreational activities, such as helmets and mouthguards.
  2. Follow proper technique and safety guidelines during sports and physical activities.
  3. Encourage open communication about concussion symptoms and the importance of reporting them to coaches, trainers, or medical professionals.
  4. Make sure that living spaces are free from trip hazards and have adequate lighting to prevent falls.

Conclusion: Understanding the Importance of Concussion Awareness and Education

With the prevalence of concussions and their potential long-term effects, it’s essential to educate ourselves and others about these injuries. By understanding the science behind concussions, recognising the symptoms, and following appropriate recovery and prevention guidelines, we can help to reduce the risks associated with traumatic brain injuries and promote overall brain health.

Remember, if you suspect that you or someone you know may have sustained a concussion, it’s crucial to seek medical help as soon as possible. Early diagnosis and treatment can help to minimise the risk of complications and promote a faster recovery. The more we know about concussions, the better equipped we will be to recognise and respond to these injuries when they occur.

If yourself or a loved one has sustained a concussion or multiple concussions and after seeking immediate medical advice from your doctor, you still have on-going concerns regarding the symptoms of concussion, please speak to our team of Gold Coast Clinical Psychologists and Psychologists. Our team can help to evaluate your current presentation of concussion symptoms including from a cognitive perspective, and determine if you require any cognitive/neuropsychological testing with our range of psychometric tests we have available. These tests allow us to determine what your current cognitive functioning level is and how it might have changed from the concussion, as well as provide you with recommendations of various strategies to recover from the effects of concussion.

Phone our clinic today on 07 5574 3888 or email You are also welcome to book an initial consultation online with Ashley Gilmour, Clinical Psychologist, via our online booking portal.